Thursday, February 18, 2016


It is the moving component that is contained by a cylinder and is made gas-tight by piston rings.


a device, often powered hydraulically, for raising a vehicle so that the underside is accessible for inspection and repair.

oil filter

An oil filter is a filter designed to remove contaminants from engine oil, transmission oil, lubricating oil, or hydraulic oil.


The valves that allow the air/fuel mixture to enter the engine's combustion chambers.

eye wash station

Emergency eye wash equipment is used to drench or flush the eyes with water when dust, irritants, or chemicals enter the eye.


a shaft with one or more cams attached to it, especially one operating the valves in an internal combustion engine.


a shaft consisting of a series of cranks and crankpins to which the connecting rods of an engine are attached.
Category: articles

Tuesday, June 19, 2012


Bjarne Sorenson, Bang & Olufsen's Automotive Technology Director, is a very lucky guy. As we sat in the Aston Martin DBS listening to music, he described the approval process for the company's recent work with BMW. As BMW was putting the final touches on its new 6-series, Sorenson got to spend a few days driving the Autobahn at 100 mph in the car, making sure the optional Bang & Olufsen audio system produced the same perfect sound at high speeds as it did at a stop.

Sorenson has also been lucky in launching Bang & Olufsen's automotive practice about eight years ago, as automakers spent the last decade scrambling to sign deals for branded audio systems in their cars. His practice area has grown to a significant part of Bang & Olufsen's business, with placement in cars from Aston Martin, Audi, Mercedes-Benz, and BMW.
At the Geneva show, Sorenson gave me a tour of the systems in three different cars, providing an excellent opportunity to hear the different implementations. We started at the bottom, with Bang & Olufsen's latest work in the all new Audi A3. I had previously been impressed how Audi is giving the A3 as much available tech as the higher end cars in its line-up. The inclusion of a Bang & Olufsen audio option, which Sorenson said would go for 900 euros, is further evidence that Audi will leave no car behind.

AltFor the new A3, Bang & Olufsen 14 speakers and a 705 watt amp with 15 channels. In front, the doors each hold a woofer and a mid, with tweeters mounted in the A pillars. A subwoofer sits under the floor of the cargo area. Missing from this system are the acoustic lenses, which have become a signature for Bang & Olufsen.

Ensuring the tone controls were all flat, Sorenson played his test CD. Most of the music we listened to was jazzy, featuring a balance of guitar, percussion, and some vocals. The system reproduced the music with strong detail and timbre. On a track with an acoustic guitar, I could hear the musicians fingers slide along a nylon string. From high volume to low, the music came through cleanly, without losing background elements.
The next car we went to was the Aston Martin DBS, which Sorenson said was his favorite of the work Bang & Olufsen had done in the automotive space. This car, one of Bang & Olufsen's earlier efforts, has 13 speakers, with two being acoustic lenses that rise up from the corners of the dashboard. Two amps power these speakers, one with 250 watts going through 13 channels and the other with 750 watts and five channels.

In this car Sorenson again put in his test CD, but initially chose a track that was nearly all drums. Turning up the volume, I was blown away by the presence of the sound, the sense that each drum hit was happening right in front of me. The depth was astonishing, letting me hear the different types of drums and the full range of sound each produced. A symphonic piece we listened to showed the extreme detail of this system. I could hear the distant sound of the musicians turning pages*in the music, and a woodwind player taking a breath before setting off on a solo.

Listening to the tracks we had heard in the A3, the audio quality was clearly superior in the DBS, a much more expensive system.
AltFor the last part of the tour, we got into the Mercedes-Benz SL AMG. For this roadster, Bang & Olufsen used 12 speakers and a 940 watt amp. It has the acoustic lenses that rise from the corners of the dashboard, a center speaker mounted between the seats facing forward, and woofers that have actually been designed into the footwell space of the car.

For this part of the tour, we were hampered by the open top and the crowds of people around checking out the car. Instead of using Sorenson's CD, we tried a USB drive I was carrying with MP3 tracks compressed at 320 kilobits.

Playing a track by Adele, her voice came out as clearly as I have ever heard it, the system reproducing vocal tones nicely. The production on this album, 21, is not very good, though, flattening much of the backing musicians' work. The deep bass guitar of a track by The XX was reproduced very well by this system, the low tones coming out with enough pressure to be felt, yet not causing speaker rattle.

Sorenson suggested Bang & Olufsen was being very selective about the automotive brands with which it would partner, focusing on the European luxury market. He expressed no interesting in working with Lexus, for example. It also seemed the company will not cheapen the brand, the system in the A3 about as low as it would go.
Category: articles
Automotive Technology and Powersports Program Students

Graduates of the Automotive Technology program experience an exciting period of transition as technologies continue their shift toward much higher fuel efficiency. Recruiters and employers of SUNY Canton's graduates include dealerships, service industries, automobile manufacturers, and parts suppliers. Graduates learn how to troubleshoot, diagnose and repair all aspects of the automobile power train, suspension, steering, braking and air conditioning systems.
Mission Statement:

We educate and train for future Automotive Professionals. Using critical thinking skills, students will understand the history of the industry, evaluate the dynamics of the present, and envision mobility in the future.
Students in this Major:

* Utilize the latest technology in an electronics-based curriculum.
* Acquire extensive hands-on experience in well-equipped laboratories.
* Receive a world class education in automotive mechanical, technical, and services areas.
* Learn on late model cars donated by automotive manufacturers.
* Get special attention from faculty in small laboratory classes.
* Are encouraged to take the Automotive Service Excellence certification test upon completion of course work.
* Enjoy outstanding career placement.

Career Opportunities:

  • Automotive Service Technician
  • Service Manager
  • Service Advisor
  • Industrial Research/Development
  • Automotive Machine Shop
  • Auto Parts Manager/Owner
  • Technical Representative
  • Automatic Transmission Technician
  • Wheel Alignment/Suspension Technician
  • Maintenance Technician
  • Fleet Maintenance Supervisor/Technician
  • Heavy Equipment Maintenance Technician

Recent Employers of SUNY Canton Graduates:

  • Advanced Auto Parts
  • Blevins Brothers dealerships
  • Chrysler Corporation
  • Fay Motors Cadillac Dealership
  • Firestone Tire Company
  • Ford Motor Company
  • General Motors Corporation
  • Goodyear Tire Company
  • Mort Backus and Sons Chevrolet Buick and GMC
  • NAPA Auto Parts
  • Sears
  • Snap-On Tools Corporation
  • Subaru Distribution Corporation
  • Taylor Rental Corporation
  • Toyota (Lexus Division)
  • Troyer Race Car Engineering
  • Various dealerships throughout NYS
  • Many graduates own their own businesses 

    Career Outlook:

    The U.S. Department of Labor cites a strong demand for qualified automotive technicians and master technicians.


    Transfer Opportunities Include:

    * SUNY Utica/Rome, SUNY Oswego
    * Indiana State University

    National Accreditation:

    SUNY Canton’s automotive technology program has received the highest level of national certification following an extensive review and analysis. The program has received certification by National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation (NATEF) and the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE). It gives the already-renowned program instant credibility nationwide and will assist graduates in their career pursuits anywhere in the nation.


    To achieve this coveted recognition, the school’s automotive technology program underwent rigorous evaluation and met or exceeded nationally accepted standards of excellence in areas including instruction, facilities, and equipment.

    * Applicants who have completed a two year vocational-technical automotive program may qualify for advanced standing (transfer credit).

    Admission Requirements:

    * Refer to the table of high school course prerequisites for admission.
    * Students must be qualified to entdr Applied College Mathematics (MATH 101)

    Category: articles

    FERRARI'S 458 Italia has taken another international prize, winning UK magazine Car's performance car of the year 2010.

    "The 458 Italia is an extraordinary Ferrari," says Car editor Phil McNamara. "That one of the fastest, most thrilling and communicative supercars of all time is also one of the easiest to drive day in, day out is a remarkable achievement.
    "Next year's new McLaren supercar will have to be extraordinarily talented to dislodge the Italia."

    Car magazine's "Performance Car of the Year" test took place over more than 4000km in Europe earlier this year, with competitors from eight different brands. The 458's Car gong follows a chestful of COTY medals including those of Fifth Gear, BBC Top Gear Magazine and Auto Express.

    The Ferrari 458 Italia was revealed at the Frankfurt Motor Show in September 2009 and has since had journalists flailing for superlatives.
    Category: articles
    AltThe first car bought by John Lennon after he passed his driving test is being offered for sale at auction.

    The Ferrari 330 GT 2+2 Coupe was bought by the Beatle in 1965 and is expected to sell for between 120,000 euros ($A156,188) and 170,000 euros ($A221,267).
    Lennon's biographer, Philip Norman, described how car dealers descended on the singer's home when the news emerged that he had passed his test and offered him a "gleaming smorgasbord" of luxury cars.

    But it was the Ferrari that caught his eye, with Lennon paying STG2,000 for the car, It was soon joined by his trademark Rolls-Royce, complete with psychedelic paintwork, and a Mini.

    The car will be sold by auction house Bonhams at a sale in Paris on February 5.
    Category: articles

    IT'S A Ferrari, but not as we know it. This is the first 4WD Ferrari.

    Famed for its two-seater, rear-wheel-drive supercars, the Italian manufacturer has revealed its first four-wheel drive, the four,seater Ferrari FF. The latest addition to the Maranello prancing horse fleet is also a hatchback or "shooting brake", but unlike any normal hatchback.
    Its 6262cc direct-injection V12 engine delivers 485kW of power that slings the red missile from standstill to 100km/h in just 3.7 seconds and a maximum speed of 335km/h.

    But the main point of difference in the "Ferrari Four" is the addition of four-wheel drive for the first time which places it in even closer competition with all-wheel-drive Lamborghinis. Ferrari's patented 4RM four-wheel drive system is claimed to weigh half as much as other systems to provide a balanced weight distribution of 53 per cent over the rear axle.

    While no details of how the drive system works have been released, it is believed Ferrari favours a part-time system. This could be a system that is activated by driver selection, when slip is detected in the rear wheels or engaged at lower speeds then kicks into rear-wheel-drive for better fuel economy and performance.

    It is integrated with the car's electronic dynamic control systems and has the latest version of Ferrari's magnetic suspension damping system and Brembo carbon-ceramic brakes.

    Carsguide has published spy photos from Carparazzi of the car heavily disguised but looking frumpy in the rear end. However, with the covers removed it appears Italian design house Pininfarina has produced a sleek supercar that looks like an aerodynamic version of the 1970s Jensen Interceptor.

    It has generous space for four passengers and even 450 litres of luggage. With the rear seats down, luggage space increases to 800 litres.
    The new four-seater gran turismo style puts it in direct competition with the emergence over the past few years of other four-steer GTs such as the Porsche Panamera and Aston Rapide.

    The FF will make its official debut at the Geneva Motor Show in March and will arrive in Australia early next year. Australian importer Ateco says it will replace the 612 Scaglietti in its four-car line-up.

    The current Scaglietti sells here for $698,000, but the FF's drive system is expected to boost that price. It would join Ferrari's current Australian line-up of California Convertible ($459,650), 458 Italia ($526,950) and 599 Fiorano ($677,250).

    The Italian manufacturer is currently enjoying record sales in the US and China and in Australia, Ferrari sold 126 cars last year, up 21.2 per cent which is double the market trend.

    Ateco spokesman Edward Rowe says the FF will appeal to "people who want a Ferrari that is able to used across a broad range of uses. What'r been happening over the past 10-15 years is Ferrari owners' average mileage they drive has been increasing significantly every year and Ferrari owners want to be able to use their cars in a much wider range of uses," he says.

    "The idea of this car is it's fully capable of going to a high-speed performance day and then take you and your family and skis in the car down to the snow for a ski weekend. This illustrates the enormous breadth and ability of this car."

    Rowe says the FF is "still a true supercar" in performance and handling. "It remains a true mid-engined Ferrari but at the same time it's like no other Ferrari that's gone before it."

    Rowe says they already have "double figures" of customers "putting their hand up" for the FF.

    Ferrari FF

    Price: TBA
    Engine: 65-degree 6262cc direct-injection V12
    Power: 485kW @ 8000 rpm
    Torque: 683Nm @ 6000 rpm
    Dimensions (mm): 4907 (l), 1953 (w), 1379 (h) Dry weight: 1790kg Weight distribution: 47% front, 53% rear Top speed: 335 km/h
    0-100km/h: 3.7 sec
    Economy: 15.4L/100km
    CO2: 360g/kmFerrari FF
    Category: articles

    WITH a roar and a chest-crushing leap forward, Ferrari's FF accelerates from the dirt carpark with barely a spit of stone and dust.

    The surprise isn't the acceleration - though 3.7 seconds to 100km/h is pretty good - rather the fact that 485kW/683Nm has been instructed to put all these numbers through the wheels and the result is barely any wheelspin. This is where the Ferrari FF - the company's first all-wheel drive - excels.
    Born from customer demand for a car that can transverse slippery snow and sand tracks, it has been a difficult development that started in 2004. The FF uses an all-wheel drive system that is breathtaking in its simplicity - a direct drive from the front of the crankshaft to a small box with three cogs, one multi-disc clutch box and two shafts to either front wheel.

    The rear wheels are driven conventionally, in this case through a seven-speed dual-clutch transmission - another first for Ferrari - that's mounted with the electronically-controlled diff at the rear.

    There is no mechanical connection between the drive to the front wheels and the drive to the rear wheels. There are numerous benefits of this system, Firstly, it's very light (Ferrari claims 40kg that is half that of a traditional all-wheel drive system) and small (the power transfer unit is only 170mm long).

    The clutches are monitored and controlled by computers to allocate torque where needed. For example, in situations where grip is lost, it is reallocated to the other wheel. This is constantly monitored so maximum grip is available to either of the front wheels when needed. The same use of electronics applies to the rear diff.

    Because there is a speed difference between front wheels and rear wheels, Ferrari has incorporated two gears in the PTU that alter the ratios from the engine to the wheels. To pick up any smaller differences, the clutch pack is allowed to slip.

    Ferrari says the two-cog gearbox in the PTU is good for up to 200km/h at which point the system will disengage drive to the front wheels. It is possible that in extreme situations that 20 per cent of maximum torque will temporarily go to the front wheels - such as when the rear wheels are on ice - to provide maximum traction.
    Category: articles
    Category: articles

    Thumbs Up: The first truly new automotive technology in decades.

    Thumbs Down: New “lower” price makes car more expensive.

    Buy This Car If: You want an electric car that has a virtually unlimited range.

    Even before the current post-crash-test fire media hype, the Chevrolet Volt was the most misunderstood and politicized car in the history of the automobile. Detractors called it “just another hybrid,” without bothering to learn what makes the Volt different from ordinary parallel hybrid automobiles like the best-selling Toyota Prius. Worse, they panned it for “only” getting 37 miles per gallon in generator mode, or “only” having a battery range of 35 miles, missing the point of the car entirely. General Motors was upfront during both the development and the launch of the car: for an admittedly narrow range of the population, the Volt is the perfect automobile. For the rest of us, it’s a very good choice for a four-seat sedan that blends battery power and range-extending generator power.


    I’ve covered the technology behind the Volt on several occasions, so I’ll just summarize here. Unlike conventional, parallel hybrids, which use a battery and electric motor to supplement a fuel-efficient gasoline motor, the Volt is what’s known as a series hybrid, or extended-range electric vehicle. It’s primary propulsion system is always an electric motor, driven by either a lithium-ion battery pack or by a gasoline powered generator, which produces electricity to power the motor when the batteries are 70 percent depleted.


    If that’s hard for you to wrap your head around, don’t think of the Volt as a car. Instead, think of it as a miniature version of a diesel-electric submarine, or a diesel-electric locomotive (albeit with a gasoline engine). While critics will point out that the Volt is driven by its gasoline motor, too, we’d argue that this is only partially true. Electric motors have the benefit of making peak torque at zero RPM; in other words, they can move an electric car from a standing start with a surprising amount of haste. The downside to electric motors is that they run out of speed at high RPMs, which make them less than ideal for automotive applications. What good is a car that doesn’t have sufficient power for a passing move at 60 miles per hour?


    To solve this problem, GM engineers used a planetary gearbox to provide supplemental torque from the engine to the Volt’s electric motor under certain conditions, such as passing at (or above) highway speeds. Critics point out that this means the gas motor can drive the wheels, but that’s not entirely true. There is no direct linkage between the motor and the drive wheels, and should someone steal your electric motor, you can’t just start the gas engine and drive home. The Volt is an electric car, but it adds the functionality of a gas-powered range extender.


    As for the fire issue, the post-crash incident occurred in one car, with a fire risk presented in two others. To understand how minimal the danger is, first you need to understand the NHTSA crash test procedures. Following the side impact test, the car is put on a rotisserie and spun 90 degrees for five minutes to check for leaking gasoline (which presents a much greater risk of fire). In the case of the crash-tested Volts, the impact created a leak in the battery coolant system. Over a three-week period, this leaked coolant dried, crystallized, and caused a short-circuit in the electronics surrounding the battery pack. As a result, the batteries overheated and caused smoldering, or in one case, a fire.


    Why is this a non-issue for Volt owners? First, an impact severe enough to rupture the battery coolant line (in the center of the battery pack itself) will likely result in the total loss of the car. Second, GM has now issued procedures on de-energizing the Volt’s battery pack for post-crash workers. Finally, there have been no documented cases of an undamaged Volt being the cause of a fire. If you’re concerned over a fire risk, ponder this: every day you likely park a conventional car, filled with highly combustible gasoline, in a structure attached to your house. All it takes to create a very real fire risk is a leaking fuel line or electrical short, yet few people give this a second thought.


    Taken for what it is, the Volt is a very comfortable and reasonably entertaining four-seat sedan. In battery mode, it can travel roughly 35 miles on a single charge, using no gasoline in the process. In fact, Jay Leno now has over 11,000 miles on his personal Chevy Volt, and he’s yet to put gas in the car. If you travel less than 35 miles per day, the Volt’s gasoline-powered generator will likely start only to cycle fuel through the system.


    On the other hand, the Volt is one of two electric cars on the market today (the other being the $96,000 Fisker Karma) that you can jump into in New York and drive clear across the country, stopping only for gas. The Volt will run in generator mode as far as you need it to, which makes it as practical as a conventional gasoline powered automobile.

    “But,” critics will argue, “it only gets 37 mpg in generator mode. My Prius gets about 50 mpg.”

    That may be the case, but try driving a Prius for 11,000 miles without once putting gas into it. The Prius may be a more fuel-conscious choice for commutes above a bertain distance, but current models can’t be driven to work in battery mode. The Prius is a parallel hybrid, not an extended-range electric vehicle.


    Therein lies the plus and minus of Volt ownership. It’s the perfect car for those who only need the ability to haul three others, drive less than 35 miles per day and have the $40,000 price of admission. In our eyes, it’s far more practical than a Nissan Leaf, which requires a lengthy charge when the batteries are depleted. Even a quick charge, which replenishes the Leaf’s batteries to 80 percent, takes 30 minutes, and that assumes you can find a quick-charge station.


    For the rest of us, the Volt is still a solid choice even if it isn’t an absolutely perfect fit. Behind the wheel, the Volt accelerates with more enthusiasm than the 0 – 60 time of 9.2 seconds would indicate, and you can really feel the car’s 273 pound-feet of torque when you mash the accelerator. Since the Volt is silent in battery mode, it takes your senses some time to adjust to the lack of noise and vibration. On long road trips, the Volt feels more like a luxury car than a mainstream sedan.

    In generator mode, you hear the 1.4-liter engine running, but the noise is minimal and vibration is never intrusive. Since the engine speed is determined by load on the electric motor and not by throttle position, the disconnect takes some getting used to. Stomp the accelerator going up a hill, and the engine may remain near idle. Lift off as you crest the hill, and the engine may suddenly go to redline, as the car attempts to replenish a charge to the batteries.

    If there’s a drawback to the 2012 Chevy Volt, is that the car is, on an apples-to-apples basis, more expensive than the 2011 Chevy Volt. Last year the car had a base price of $40,280, but that included the Bose audio system, Bose speakers and navigation system. This year, the 2012 Chevy Volt starts at $39,145, but adding the audio system with navigation adds $1,995, while adding the Bose speaker system adds another $495. In other words, a car that cost $40,280 in 2011 will cost you $41,635 in 2012. Is that a big deal? No, but given that the most common objection we’ve heard to the Volt is its price, we’d say that it isn’t moving in the right direction.


    Since Chevy is making an effort to get Volt testers to dealers in all fifty states, we’d encourage you to go drive one before you make your mind up about the car. While it isn’t perfect for all drivers and commutes, it works well enough to be worth a look for most of us.


    Chevrolet supplied the 2012 Volt for my evaluation. My press fleet tester had a base price of $39,145, and came equipped with the $1,995 Audio / Navigation System, the $1,395 Premium Trim Package (perforated leather seats, heated front seats, leather-wrapped steering wheel), the $695 Rear Camera / Park Assist Package (ultrasonic park assist, rear vision camera), the $595 Polished Aluminum Wheels and the $495 Bose Premium Speaker System, for a total sticker price of $45,170.


    Since the Volt exists in a rather exclusive class of automobiles, comparisons to pure electric or parallel hybrids are somewhat irrelevant. The only directly comparable, series hybrid competitor to the Volt is the Fisker Karma luxury sedan, which has a starting price of $95,900.
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